Nuremberg and Other War Crimes — Part 2

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Other War Crimes Trials:


a New Look


[Part 2]



Richard Harwood






Introduction ……………………………………….. 1


Facts & Figures …………………………………… 1


The Scene is Set …………………………………. 3


The Occupation …………………………………… 5


De-Nazification …………………………………… 7

The Role of the OSS ……………………………. 9


Belsen ………………………………………………….. 11


The International Military Tribunal … 11

 Jackson’s Speech ………………………………. 18

 Psychology of Defendants …………………. 19

 The Defendants ………………………………… 19

 The Witnesses …………………………………… 29

 The Sentences …………………………………… 34

 The Executions ………………………………….. 34

 The Imprisonments ……………………………. 34


The American Military Tribunal ……….. 35

 AMT4 …………………………………………………. 36

 AMT6 …………………………………………………. 37

 AMT7 …………………………………………………. 39

 AMT9 …………………………………………………. 40

 AMT10 ………………………………………………… 41

 The Prosecution …………………………………. 44


Trial of Manstein …………………………………. 45


Dachau Trials ………………………………………. 48


Trial of Eichmann ……………………………….. 51

 Eichmann the Zionist …………………………. 54


Recent German Trials ………………………… 55


Italian Trials ……………………………………….. 56


Criticism of the Trials …………….………….. 57

 The Charges ………………………………………. 57

 The Court ………………………………………….. 58

 The Defendants …………………………………. 58

 The Hidden Aspect …………………………….. 59



A The Katyn Massacre ……………………….. 59

B Bombing of Civilians ……………………….. 61

C The ‘Repatriations………………………….. 64

D Palestine …………………………………………… 66

Bibliography …………………………………………. 69



Cover photo shows the funeral pyre set up in a Dresden street of some of the 135,000 civilian victims of Allied bombing of that German city.

© 1978

All Rights Reserved

Printed & published by Historical Review Press, Chapel Ascote, Ladbroke, Southam, – Warks., England




1. These notes and Version History (see below) do not appear in the original book. They are here to explain what is not original to the book and what is additional material. For example the layout is not original, the book is formatted with two columns, while this version has a standard “one column” format.


2. This version contains footnotes (the original did not) and additional images, indicated by [Add. Image] that did not appear in the original book.


3. Page numbers in square brackets, e.g.  [Page 3] refer to the original book. If a page number falls within a sentence in the original it has been moved here to  the end or beginning of the sentence, or paragraph.


4. The English spelling “Nuremberg” is used throughout the text here, while the original book uses the German spelling.


5.  …. ]


Version History

Ver 2: Aug 6, 2014 – Added additional images and footnotes to Setting the Scene.

Ver 1: Aug 3, 2014 – Added additional images and footnotes to Introduction and Facts & Figures.






The execution in 1976 of British and American mercenaries in Angola for ‘war crimes’ has brought back to public attention this peculiar and disturbing subject. [1]
During the Angolan trial, the judges intervened at several points to restrain the defence counsel from putting its case too well. The court could not tolerate any evidence which might help the accused criminals, they said.


The British press whined hypocritically about this travesty of justice. Yet the simple-minded Angolans were only doing as their European mentors had taught them: the Angolan trial was virtually a carbon-copy of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremburg in 1946. All the ingredients were there: the pretence of justice, the restrictions on the defence, the presumption of guilt before the trial had even started, the supervision of an international tribunal, the hysterical accusations of prosecution witnesses etc., etc. It is easy for the press to complain about the standards of ‘justice’ in a backward and far-off land in darkest Africa. But it is not so easy for them to criticise a series of trials for which we were responsible, at least in part, and which have gone down in history and subsequent protocol agreements, as legal precedent.


We are subject to no such restrictions. In this short volume, we hope to examine as thoroughly and objectively as possible the vexed subject of the trials at Nuremburg, and in so doing make some contribution to a rational understanding of this aspect of recent history which has, along with other events, been grotesquely twisted by the enemies of truth. One such example is the allegation that six million Jews were gassed as part of an official extermination programme on the part of the German government of the Hitler era and which formed one of the major charges against the Nazi leaders at Nuremburg.


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[Add. Image] Aerial view of Nuremberg “Palace of Justice” in Winter 1945-46


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[Add. Image] 1945-46 The Court House – “Palace of Justice”.


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[Add. Image] On guard at the “Palace of Justice”.



[1] See PART 1







In the United States,  the chorus of demands for the trial of the Nazi leaders developed mostly out of the hate mongering campaign operated by various official and semiofficial propaganda agencies. At the beginning of the war, the American people regarded the ordinary Germans as quite pleasant people who had been railroaded into the war by that tyrant Hitler. Such a corporate view would not tolerate Washington’s plans for a mass-murder of German civilians through day and night bombing raids. Nor would they accept the degradation and humiliation of the Germans after the Nazis’ defeat.


Early on in the war, the main protagonist of frenzied, anti-German hatred was Sir (later Lord) Robert Vansittart, [1] the British diplomatist. In a series of radio broadcasts of fantastic fury in 1941, Vansittart wove a paranoid picture of “German evil and viciousness” which stretched back two thousand years. He compared Germany to the shrike or butcher-bird, which preys on its weaker neighbours. President Roosevelt, whilst officially disassociating himself from Vansittart’s way-out hate-mongering, was sufficiently impressed with his approach that he sent tapes of Vansittart’s British radio hate speeches to William B. Donovan, [2] Co-ordinator of Information, and later chief of the OSS (the fore-runner of the CIA), to be used as American radio propaganda.


Vansittart’s hymn of hate against Germany was soon taken up and echoed on the other side of the Atlantic too. A writer by the name of Theodore N. Kaufman [3], in Germany Must Perish (Argyle Press, Newark, 1941) insisted that the Nazis were “merely mirrors reflecting the centuries-old inbred lust of the German nation for conquest and mass murder.” It was the “German people” who were “ responsible” for the war and hence “must be made to pay.” To rid the world of these “war-lusted souls” Kaufman advocated the “eugenic sterilisation” of 48 million Germans. By such a policy he estimated that “Germanism” could be extinguished in two generations. Meanwhile, German PoWs could,  after sterilisation, be placed in “labour battalions” while the Reich itself could be partitioned among its deserving neighbours. Kaufmann even illustrated his tract with a hand-drawn map, showing France stretching as far as Erfurt, Holland trebling its size to reach almost to the gates of Berlin, and Poland and Czechia (?) dividing what is now East Germany equally between them. All this was the more remarkable in that Kaufmann’s rant was written and published before the USA entered the war!


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[Add. Image] Kaufmann’s map of a post war dismembered Germany


As the war progressed, the hate campaign was stepped up too, and the first official demands for bloody revenge started to be made. Early in 1943, the former US ambassador to Germany,  James W. Gerard, [4]urged that when the Allies conquered Germany they hang 10,000 Prussians as a starter. Joseph E. Davies [5], a confidant of Roosevelt’s and a former ambassador to the USSR,  said that the Germans should be treated like insane asylum inmates for two or three generations and, as if to justify his hate, confidently predicted that the Germans would begin using poison gas and bacteriological warfare very shortly. A New Jersey radio station ran a competition to select the best replacement word for ‘kindergarten’, because it was borrowed from the German language. A prominent judge and a newspaper publisher agreed to act as adjudicators.


But the greatest hate-generation source of all was the Writers’ War Board [6], a quasi-governmental agency set up early in the war by Roosevelt’s adviser Morgenthau [7]. Morgenthau selected as WWB director Rex Stout [8], an author of third-rate detective stories and other pot-boilers. Stout in turn hand-picked other writers of sensationalist, popular fiction to contribute their talents to the Board. Members received no compensation for their efforts, but the government paid for overheads such as secretarial staff and office expenses. The Board worked closely with the Office of War Information, the propaganda off-shoot of the OSS.


Two weeks after the Allies’ Casablanca conference, the Board swung into action with an article written by Stout in the New York Times Sunday Magazine, rather appropriately entitled “We Shall Hate or We Shall Fail”. [9] Stout asserted that four generations of German leaders had been guided by the “adoration of force as the only arbiter, and skulduggery as the supreme technique in human affairs.” Hatred of the Germans, he wrote, was necessary “to establish the world on a basis of peace.” Obviously the American public was not yet ready for such paranoia, for the editor of the Times was deluged with letters in opposition to Stout. Several church groups made official protests.


[Page 3]


Stout’s campaign was rabidly supported by Clifton Fadiman, [10] who at that time was the book review editor of the New Yorker weekly magazine. Fadiman, who was Stout’s right-hand man on the WWB, used his magazine position to promote more anti-German hatred. Fadiman noted that there was “only one way to make a German understand and that’s to kill them, and even then I think they don’t understand.” (original grammar).


The WWB also “advised” radio stations and even arranged programmes and wrote speeches. One of the Board’s most prominent front-men, Quentin Reynolds [11] the war correspondent and Collier’s magazine columnist, announced on the popular radio programme “America’s Town Meeting of the Air[12] that hatred was a “healthy” emotion, and that the mental disease of Germany could not be cured — “you must kill.” On another edition of the same programme, on 30 September 1943, the British hate-monger Lord Vansittart was the principal guest, along with Richard M. Brickner, the author of a book Is Germany Incurable? [13] which the WWB was promoting. Bruckner, introduced as a “noted psychiatrist”, proposed the incarceration in institutions and labour battalions of large numbers of “paranoid-tending” Germans. They would be treated as “typhoid carriers”; their children would be taken away from them and placed in foster homes. Later in the war, the programme presented Louis Nizer, [14] the author of yet another book on What to Do with Germany, [15]  who proposed that death penalties should be demanded not only of about 5,000 high Nazi officials,  but also of 150,000 subordinates and civil servants. Every German officer above the rank of colonel, along with members of the Reichstag, and many others, would be tried. Hundreds of thousands of Germans would be given jail sentences ranging up to life, which they would serve in labour battalions. But this alone would not cure the German “lust for war”, he asserted. All heavy industry must be removed from Germany in order to prevent any ideas about a new war. On the same radio programme, Samuel Grafton, a syndicated columnist, also urged the permanent exiling or imprisonment without trial of at least 10,000 “members of the leading Nazi circles”.


Both “America’s Town Meeting of the Air” and its sister programme “America’s Forum of the Air” were heavily influenced by the WWB. Stout not only selected many of the speakers on programmes relating to Germany but was also able to influence the choice of subjects and titles. Some of this influence was wielded indirectly through a WWB offshoot, the Society for the Prevention of World War III, [16]  which preached even greater vindictiveness than its parent body. The Society was also controlled by Stout, and was financed privately by Robert Woods Bliss, [17] a former US ambassador to the Argentine; funds being channelled through the leftist Brookings Institute in Washington. Oddly, the Society’s main target in America was the Council for a Democratic Germany,  a group of anti-Nazi German refugees who hoped to restore democracy and reconstruct Germany as soon as possible. Stout made sure that the Council got little publicity, and publicly condemned efforts to “salvage Germany ”.


But the most amazing example of the WWB’s power was its ability to actually re-write history, in exactly the same way that Winston Smith used the “Memory Hole” at the Ministry of Truth in George Orwell’s 1984. In order to promote the idea of German war guilt, it was necessary to overturn the historical verdict on World War I. Most historians conducting research into the origins of the first war had by that time concluded that exclusive blame could not be allocated to Germany or any participant. Their collective findings were reflected in the 1930 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, where an 8,000-word article on War Guilt elaborated on this view. First the WWB softened up public opinion for the project re-writing, with an article by Stout in the NYT Book Review. Stout complained, at some length, that those who “excused” the Germans of First World War guilt were “fatally deceiving their countrymen”. That the Times should give such prominent space to the dismissal of the collective conclusions of most, serious, historians, by a writer of cheap detective novels, is an indication of the power the WWB wielded. But there was more to come. The revisionist view of history first voiced by Stout was echoed and reechoed by innumerable government officials,  newspaper editors and media men: Germany had again become solely guilty of starting World War I; after all, they had started five wars in 80 years, hadn’t they? In its 1944 edition, the Encyclopaedia Britannica cut out the 8,000-word article, and substituted a brief note saying there was not sufficient space for adequate treatment of the subject of War Guilt. History had been re-written.


Although the WWB was officially restrained from making political attacks, the Board was still able to “draw attention to” certain points in its mail-outs. The Board regularly monitored the radio comments of independent broadcasters, and attempted to silence anyone who was too soft on Germany by putting pressure on the programmes’ sponsors. Commentators such as Fulton Lewis Jr. who were attacked in material mailed out by the Board, and who protested to the Office of War Information, were told that the Board was not a governmental agency and hence not under its control.


One of the best-known broadcasters who took the WWB’s hate- Germany line was Walter Winchell [18] (real name Isadore Lipschitz). Winchell’s views on Germany were expressed to millions of listeners in terms of “a rattlesnake never deserves another chance”.


July 1944 saw the appearance of an influential book Time For Decision, by the then recently-retired Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles. [19] Welles wrote that even at this late stage in the war, the Germans were already making plans for a third world war. The book was awarded a prominent review in the New York Times, the reviewer commenting that the obvious solution to this danger would be for Germany to be deprived of all its heavy industry, since “no one need fear an agricultural, small-crafts economy”. Naturally, the book also received heavy WWB promotion.


Films too were grist to the WWB mill. Hate films proliferated depicting shining American heroes pitted against brutal Nazis. When The North Star [20] showed German army doctors bleeding children to death to top up their blood-banks, Time magazine hailed the picture as the “most successful attempt to show a sickening German atrocity in credible terms.” Hollywood did not forget box office receipts either, and many of the hate films were heavily flavoured with sex, much of it of the sadomasochistic variety.


Academics and educators joined in the baying for German blood. Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of the (Communist-infiltrated) Carnegie Endowment for “International Peace” and former president of Columbia University, said that when the war ended Germans could not be regarded as anything but convicted criminals. In a statement circulated by the WWB, he asserted that for a generation Germans could not be accepted as equal citizens of the post-war world. Several educationalists proposed that all Axis schoolteachers who had willingly stayed at their posts throughout the war should be discharged and “forever barred from teaching again”. But the most preposterous suggestion of all — from any source — came from an eminent anthropologist, Dr. Ernest A. Hooton of Harvard University. He proposed to dilute the German stock (and thereby “adulterate the Nazi strain”) by a process of outbreeding, i.e. miscegenation. This would be accomplished by sending Czechs, Austrians and others into Germany,  where they would settle and interbreed with the German people. Men of the German army would be kept out of their native land while the “outbreeding” was going on, probably by being put into forced labour in formerly occupied countries. (Astute readers will of course realise that this plan was eventually to involve ethnic groups much more exotic than the “Czechs” and “Austrians” and it was not only the Germans who would be made to suffer this dreadful fate, as the residents of towns and cities throughout Britain are only too aware.)


By January 1945, WWB material was being sent to 3,500 writers, 1,150 army information services, 2,600 industrial newspapers and 270 comic strip editors. Syndicated editorials were sent to 1,600 daily newspapers. Radio scripts went to 750 local radio stations.


The all-out effort to induce hate had worked. As the war ended, a packed meeting at Carnegie Hall (arranged by Stout’s Society) welcomed the demand by St Louis Post Despatch editor Joseph Pulitzer [21] that punishing the guilty would require the execution of approximately a million and a half Germans. The guilty, “with no differentiation as to their degree of guilt” should be shot.






[1] Robert Gilbert Vansittart, 1st Baron Vansittart GCB, GCMG, PC, MVO (25 June 1881 – 14 February 1957), known as Sir Robert Vansittart between 1929 and 1941, was a senior British diplomat in the period before and during the Second World War. He was Principal Private Secretary to the Prime Minister from 1928 to 1930 and Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office from 1930 to 1938 and later served as Chief Diplomatic Adviser to the British Government. He is best remembered for his opposition to Appeasement and his hardline stance towards Germany during and after the Second World War.


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Strong opposition to Germany


Vansittart was also involved in intelligence work. He was opposed to the appeasement of German aggression. In 1940, Vansittart sued the American historian Harry Elmer Barnes for libel for an article Barnes had written in 1939 accusing Vansittart of plotting aggression against Germany in 1939. During the war, Vansittart became a prominent advocate of an extremely hard line with Germany. His earlier worries about Germany were reformulated into an argument that Germany was intrinsically militaristic and aggressive. In Black Record: Germans Past and Present (1941), Vansittart portrayed German history from the time of ancient Rome as a continuous record of aggression. Nazism was just the latest manifestation. Therefore, after Germany was defeated, it must be stripped of all military capacity, including its heavy industries.




[2] William Joseph (“Wild Bill”) Donovan (January 1, 1883 – February 8, 1959) of Irish descent, was a United States soldier, lawyer, intelligence officer and diplomat. Donovan is best remembered as the wartime head of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency, during World War II. He is also known as the “Father of American Intelligence” and the “Father of Central Intelligence”.


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After the war ended, Donovan reverted to his lifelong role as a lawyer to perform one last duty: he served as special assistant to chief prosecutor Telford Taylor at several trials following the main Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal in Germany.




[3] Theodore Newman Kaufman (Sometimes known as Theodore Nathan Kaufman, born 1910 in Manhattan, died October 1980 in East Orange, New Jersey) was a Jew who published “Germany Must Perish!” in 1941, which called for the genocide of Germans.


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In 1939, Kaufmann was chairman of a shadowy group called the “American Federation for Peace”. He was reportedly friends with Roosevelt speech writer Sam Rosenman. The German press of the time misinterpreted this to mean Kaufman was an FDR adviser himself, which was not true.


Germany Must Perish


In late 1940, he began writing “Germany Must Perish”, the booklet he is most known for. It was published in early 1941, and inspired anger in Germany.


The open call for genocide in the tract is neither metaphorical not subtle, as he makes very clear:


Since the fang’s poison and its deadly power rests not in the body but in the war psyche of the Germans, one can ensure the prosperity and security of mankind only by finally extinguishing this soul and the rotten body that houses it, removing it finally from the world. There is no other choice: Germany must perish!

Not only must there be no more German wars in fact, there must not even remain the slightest possibility of one ever again occurring. A final halt to German aggression, not a temporary cessation, must be the goal of the present struggle… [Germany] must be prepared to pay a Total Penalty. And there is one, and only one, such Total Penalty: Germany must perish forever! In fact  —  not in fancy.” ( — From “Germany Must Perish”, by T.N. Kaufman)

On 26. September 1941 Kaufman said in an interview he gave to The Canadian Jewish Chronicle:[6]


I believe, that the Jews have a mission in life. They must see to it that the nations of the world get together in one vast federation. ‘Union Now’ is the beginning of this. Slowly but surely the world will develop into a paradise. We will have perpetual peace. And the Jews will do the most to bring about this confederation, because they have the most to gain. But how can you get peace if Germany exists? The only way to win an eternal peace is to make the punishment of waging war more horrible than war itself. Human beings are penalized for murder, aren’t they? Well, Germany starts all the wars of magnitude. Let us sterilize all Germans and wars of world domination will come to an end!


Quote from Germany Must Perish:


GERMANY MUST PERISH! By word of science, as the best means of ridding the human race of its misfits: the degenerate, the insane, the hereditary criminal. Sterilization is not to be confused with castration. It is a safe and simple Operation, quite harmless and painless, neither mutilating nor unsexing the patient. Its effects are most often less distressing than vaccination and no more serious than a tooth extraction. Too, the Operation is extremely rapid requiring no more than ten minutes to complete. The patient may resume his work immediately afterwards.

Even in the case of the female the Operation, though taking longer to perform, is as safe and simple.

Performed thousands of times, no records indicate cases of complication or death. When one realizes that such health measures as vaccination and serum treatments are considered as direct benefits to the community, certainly sterilization of the German people cannot but be considered a great health measure promoted by humanity to immunize itself forever against the virus of Germanism. The population of Germany, excluding conquered and annexed territories, is about 70,000,000, almost equally divided between male and female. To achieve the purpose of German extinction it would be necessary to only …




[4] James Watson Gerard (August 25, 1867 – September 6, 1951) was a United States lawyer and diplomat.

Under President Woodrow Wilson, he served as the American Ambassador to Germany[2] from 1913 to 1917.


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[5] Joseph Edward Davies (November 29, 1876 – May 9, 1958) was an American lawyer and diplomat. He was appointed by President Wilson to be Commissioner of Corporations in 1912, and First Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission in 1915. He was the second Ambassador to represent the United States in the Soviet Union and U.S. Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg. From 1939 to 1941 Davies was Special assistant to Secretary of State Hull, in charge of War Emergency Problems and Policies. From 1942 through 1946 he was Chairman of President Roosevelt’s War Relief Control Board. Ambassador Davies was Special Advisor of President Harry Truman and Secretary of State James F. Byrnes with rank of Ambassador at the Potsdam Conference in 1945.



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[Add. Image] Davies (L) and (T) Davies with Stalin, May 1943


Within eight months of taking office, Roosevelt took steps to recognize the government of the Soviet Union – something refused by every prior president since the communist revolution.  While ordering the FBI to give the closest scrutiny to “comical” (according to Nisbet) German-American Bund in New York, Roosevelt ignored the myriad communists within his own administration.


Roosevelt was often warned:


Three ambassadors, William Bullitt, Admiral Standley, and Averill Harriman tried to warn him; so did such Russian experts as George Kennan, Loy Henderson, and Charles Bohlen.  To no avail. (P. 12)


…on one point, these men were agreed: The Soviet Union was not a fit ally for the United States and was America’s most dangerous enemy in the postwar world. (P. 13)


Roosevelt didn’t like the counsel of experts; instead he turned to “amateurs,” as Nisbet describes them:


Harry Hopkins, Joseph Davies, Admiral Leahy, General Marshall, [and] his Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins…. (P. 13)


Davies was named Ambassador to the Soviet Union in 1937.  Within weeks of his arrival, the entire professional diplomatic staff considered a group resignation in protest of Davies’ “invincible ignorance of Soviet history and Soviet barbarism.


Within months of Davies’ arrival, he ordered the breakup of the Russian division and the scattering of its most complete library on Soviet history and life in the Soviet Union. (P. 16)


Upon Davies’ return to the United States, he published his book “Mission to Moscow,” impolitely referred to by some as “Submission to Moscow.”  The book was immediately made into a movie for the American audience. (P. 16)


Mission to Moscow is a book by the former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union Joseph E. Davies and a film based on it directed by Michael Curtiz in 1943. The 1941 book sold 700,000 copies.

The movie chronicles the experiences of the naive second American ambassador to the Soviet Union and was made in response to a request by Franklin D. Roosevelt. According to its own producer the film was “an expedient lie for political purposes”. It was later scrutinized by the House Committee on Un-American Activities.


Do you think Roosevelt didn’t realize he had a know-nothing ambassador to Moscow?






Two days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., proposed organizing the nation’s writers as civilians “under arms” to promote the war effort. A month later, a group of prominent American authors formed the Writers’ War Board, a private association partially supported by government subsidy. The board coordinated more than 2,000 writers in diverse activities including slogans, poster contests, syndicated articles, poems, radio plays, dramatic skits, government publications, books, advertisements, and war propaganda.



In T’was a Famous Victory by Benjamin Colby (1974) – Chapter 11.


“Propaganda of the Writers War Board for a Carthaginian peace pervaded the entire field of communications. Its influence reached into editorial offices high and low, into the radio networks and into the movies. The board was a supplier and clearinghouse of hard-peace propaganda for editors, writers and broadcasters, arranging radio programs, providing speakers and ghost-writing magazine articles signed by prominent persons. It organized claques for hard-peace articles and books which it approved, while impugning the motives of writers who challenged its thesis and working assiduously to disparage their product. Organizations and individuals who proposed postwar reconstruction of Germany were attacked viciously. At the same time it sought constantly to promote trust in the aims of Soviet Russia. A large advisory council of well-known writers was set up as window dressing, but these knew little of what the actual operating group was doing.”



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[7] Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (May 11, 1891 – February 6, 1967) was the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.  Morgenthau was born into a prominent Jewish family in New York City, the son of Henry Morgenthau Sr., a real estate mogul and diplomat, and Josephine Sykes.


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In 1944, Morgenthau proposed the Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, calling for Germany to be dismembered, partitioned into separate independent states, stripped of all heavy industry and forced to return to a pre-Industrial Revolution agrarian economy. The Morgenthau plan is thought by a few to have been devised by Morgenthau’s deputy, Harry Dexter White, who was later accused of being a Soviet agent. At the Second Quebec Conference on September 16, 1944, Roosevelt and Morgenthau persuaded the initially very reluctant British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to agree to the Morganthau plan, likely using a $6 billion Lend Lease agreement to do so. Churchill chose however to narrow the scope of Morgenthau’s proposal by drafting a new version of the memorandum, which ended up being the version signed by the two leaders. The gist of the signed memorandum was:


This programme for eliminating the war-making industries in the Ruhr and in the Saar is looking forward to converting Germany into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.





[8] Rex Todhunter Stout (December 1, 1886 – October 27, 1975) was an American writer noted for his detective fiction. Stout is best known as the creator of the larger-than-life fictional detective Nero Wolfe, described by reviewer Will Cuppy as “that Falstaff” of detectives.




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During World War II, he worked with the advocacy group Friends of Democracy, chaired the Writers’ War Board (a propaganda organization), and supported the embryonic United Nations. He lobbied for Franklin D. Roosevelt to accept a fourth term as President. He developed an extreme anti-German attitude and wrote a provocative essay, “We Shall Hate, or We Shall Fail”, which generated a flood of protests after its January 1943 publication in The New York Times. The attitude is expressed by Nero Wolfe in the 1942 novella “Not Quite Dead Enough”.


During the later part of the war and the post-war period he also led the Society for the Prevention of World War III which lobbied for a harsh peace for Germany. When the war ended, Stout became active in the United World Federalists.




[9]  Source:


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[10] Clifton Paul “Kip” Fadiman (May 15, 1904 – June 20, 1999) was an American intellectual, author, editor, radio and television personality. Author of the book “Books are Weapons in the War of Ideas” (1942)


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In early 1942 American book publishing executives were meeting to figure out how they could contribute to the war effort on an industry level resulting in book publishers, libraries, and book sellers coming together to form the Council on Books in Wartime (CBW). From its beginning, the CBW’s efforts worked with the coordination and support of the US government’s Office of War Information.


Fadiman’s book title was also used in the logo for the CBW.


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[Image] The Council on Books in Wartime logo designed by Alanson Hewes.



[11]  Quentin James Reynolds (April 11, 1902 – March 17, 1965) was a journalist and World War II war correspondent.


As associate editor at Collier’s Weekly from 1933 to 1945, Reynolds averaged twenty articles a year. He also published twenty-five books, including The Wounded Don’t Cry, London Diary, Dress Rehearsal, and Courtroom, a biography of lawyer Samuel Leibowitz. He also published an autobiography, By Quentin Reynolds.


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[12] America’s Town Meeting of the Air was a public affairs discussion broadcast on radio from 1935 to 1956, mainly on the NBC Blue Network and its successor, ABC Radio. One of radio’s first talk shows, it began as a six-week experiment, and NBC itself didn’t expect much from it.


Broadcast live from New York City’s Town Hall, America’s Town Meeting of the Air debuted on Thursday May 30, 1935, and only 18 of NBC’s affiliates carried it. (“George V. Denny,” 1959) The topic for that first show was “Which Way America: Fascism, Communism, Socialism or Democracy?” (Overstreet, 15) The moderator was George V. Denny Jr., executive director of the League for Political Education, which produced the program. Denny moderated the program from 1935 to 1952 and had a major role in choosing weekly topics. Denny and the League wanted to create a program that would replicate the Town Meetings that were held in the early days of the United States. (“Boston Symphony,” 1936)


But during World War II, Denny repeatedly encountered what he had most sought to avoid: angry audience members who didn’t want to listen to other viewpoints and who wanted to criticize, rather than debate. Worse still, some audience members expressed isolationist and anti-Semitic views. Denny struggled to maintain the show’s openness and objectivity, but it became increasingly difficult to do so.




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[13] Richard m. Brickner, M.D’s book “Is Germany Incurable?


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[14] Louis Nizer (February 6, 1902 in London – November 10, 1994 in New York City) was a noted Jewish trial lawyer and senior partner of the law firm Phillips Nizer Benjamin Krim & Ballon in the United States. He published the Germanophobic hate booklet “What to Do with Germany?” (1944). He represented many celebrities in a variety of cases, among them Quentin Reynolds in his successful libel suit against columnist Westbrook Pegler, and the broadcaster John Henry Faulk against AWARE, a national organization that had labeled him a communist.


After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, he authored the foreword to the Warren Commission report that investigated JFK’s murder and the conspiracy theories that still surround it.


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[15] What to Do with Germany?” (1944) by Louis Nizer


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[16] The Society for the Prevention of World War III was an organization set up in the U.S. in 1944 during World War II that advocated a harsh peace for Germany in order to completely remove Germany as a future military threat.


The Organization was a spin-off of the Writers’ War Board, with both headed by (anti-German) novelist Rex Stout and the organization’s monthly publication mainly republishing material produced by the War Board.


It succeeded in hardening attitudes towards Germany both in the media and in the government, but by 1948 it had failed in its overall mission, with JCS 1067 rescinded and the Marshall Plan helping Germany, along with the rest of Europe, back on its feet.


Prominent members


Rex Stout (In charge, also leading the Writers’ War Board, government funded and with very close ties to the Roosevelt administration); William L. Shirer (Member of board of directors); William H. Hale (Member of board of directors); Mark Van Doren; Clifton Fadiman; Christopher La Farge; Douglas Freeman; Walter Johnson; Emil Ludwig; Lewis Mumford; Allan Nevins; Louis Nizer; Quentin Reynolds; Walter Wanger; James P. Warburg; Darryl Zanuck.



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[17] Robert Woods Bliss (5 August, 1875 – 19 April 1962) was an American diplomat, art collector, philanthropist, and one of the cofounders of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection in Washington, D.C.


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War service


Bliss returned to the State Department following the entry of the U.S. into World War II, as a consultant (1942–1943), special assistant to U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull (1944), and consultant to Secretary of State Edward Stettinius (1944–1945). Robert Bliss was instrumental in arranging for a series of important diplomatic meetings to take place at Dumbarton Oaks (see below) in the late summer and early fall of 1944. Known as the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, these meetings hosted delegations from China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The delegates deliberated over proposals for the establishment of an organization to maintain peace and security in the world, and their outcome was the United Nations Charter that was adopted in San Francisco in 1945. Bliss retired a second time from government work in November 1945.




[18] Walter Winchell (April 7, 1897 – February 20, 1972) was an American newspaper and radio gossip commentator.


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Winchell, who was Jewish, was one of the first commentators in America to attack Adolf Hitler and American pro-fascist and pro-Nazi organizations such as the German-American Bund. He was a staunch supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal throughout the Depression era, and frequently served as the Roosevelt Administration’s mouthpiece in favor of interventionism as the European war crisis loomed in the late 1930s. Early on he denounced American isolationists as favoring appeasement of Hitler, and was explicit in his attacks on such prominent isolationists as Charles Lindbergh, whom he dubbed “The Lone Ostrich”, and Gerald L. K. Smith, who he denounced as “Gerald Lucifer KKKodfish Smith”.


The most controversial part of Winchell’s career were his attempts, especially after World War II, to destroy the careers of personal or political enemies. A favorite tactic was to accuse them of being communists or of sexual impropriety.




[19] Benjamin Sumner Welles (October 14, 1892 – September 24, 1961) was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1937 to 1943, during FDR’s presidency.


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[20] The North Star (also known as Armored Attack in the US) is a 1943 war film produced by Samuel Goldwyn Productions and distributed by RKO Radio Pictures.


The film is about the resistance of Ukrainian villagers, through guerrilla tactics, against the German invaders of Ukraine. The film was an unabashedly pro-Soviet propaganda film at the height of the war.


In June 1941 Ukrainian villagers are living in peace. As the schools break up for vacation, a group of friends decide to travel to Kiev for a holiday. To their horror they find themselves attacked by German aircraft, part of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union. Eventually their village itself is occupied by the Nazis. Meanwhile men and women take to the hills to form partisan militias.


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The full brutality of the Nazis is revealed when a German doctor (Erich von Stroheim) uses the village children as a source of blood for transfusions into wounded German soldiers. Some children lose so much blood that they die. A famous Russian doctor (Walter Huston) discovers this and informs the partisans, who prepare to strike back. They launch a cavalry assault on the village to rescue the children.




[21] Joseph Pulitzer II (1885-1955) proprietor of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, son of the Hungarian-American-Jewish newspaper proprietor Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911). Pulizter II’s mother, Kate Williamson Davis (1858-1927), was an Episcopalian. 1


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Pulitzer II was among the delegation of journalists invited in the Spring of 1945 by General Eisenhower to tour the captured Nazi camps in Germany and witness the horrors of the Nazis themselves. Following his return to the States he spoke at the Society for the Prevention of World War III rally at Manhattan’s Carnegie Hall on May 22, 1945. His comments were reported in The New York Times the following day:

After urging that the groups that he held responsible for the horrors (“General Staff, Gestapo, SS and Industrialists”) that he had witnessed should receive fair but speedy trials, and any who were found to be innocent should be acquitted, Mr. Pulizter declared that the rest “should be put out of this world with Army bullets through their heads.

It is difficult to get any accurate figures on the numbers involved,” Mr. Pulizter said. “The War Department for some reason has been reluctant to release information on the subject. But I estimate that somewhere between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 is a reasonable figure. Possibly 1,500,000 may be the final total.” 2


Pultizer II’s biographer Daniel W. Pfaff reveals that this wasn’t the first occasion that Pulizter had called for the mass slaughter of Germans. Pfaff writes that in an August 17, 1944 letter to the editor of the editorial page of his newspaper the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Ralph Coghlan:


he had said he was convinced that it would be necessary to execute large numbers of Germans “and then put the German people on parole and keep them on parole for at least one or probably two generations.” 3

In an December 26, 1944 letter Pultizer urged his editor Coghlan to take:


the strongest, toughest, most remorseless attitude towards all Germans until the day arrives when they have had their German bestiality educated and whipped out of them. Economic opportunity for Germans in our own self-interest after the war, yes; but gentle, sentimental consideration in the meantime, no.” 4


1. Daniel W. Pfaff, Joseph Pulitzer II and the Post-Dispatch: A Newspaperman’s Life, US PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1991, p.16.

2.Urges Executions of 1,500,000 Nazis,The New York Times, May 23, 1945. online archive ; facsimile.

3. Joseph Pulitzer II and the European War,” by Daniel W. Pfaff, American Journalism Vol. VI (issue no. III), 1989, p.156 ; Pfaff, A Newspaperman’s Life, opt cit., p.266.

4. Pfaff, AJ v.VI, op cit. pp.155-156 ; Pfaff, A Newspaperman’s Life, opt cit., p.266.







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