The New Mythology
of Racial Equality
Part 1 of 3
THE NEW MYTHOLOGY OF RACIAL EQUALITY
DEDICATED TO CHARLES SMITH FOR HIS HEROIC FIGHT TO SAVE THE WHITE RACE
The New Mythology of Racial Equality.
by BYRAM CAMPBELL
THE TRUTH SEEKER COMPANY, INC.
38 Park Row.
New York 8, N. Y. 1963
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The New Mythology of Racial Equality.
A VISIT TO SPAIN
The Spanish People
AN APPRAISAL OF SPAIN
ITALY AND THE ITALIANS
The Italian People
AN OVERALL LOOK AT AFRICA
UPPER EGYPT VISITED
The Egyptian People
AN APPRAISAL OF THE AFRICAN
A RELIGIOUS PEOPLE AND A HOLY CITY
INDIA’S CAPITAL AND THE TAJ MAHAL
AN ESTIMATE OF THE INDIAN PEOPLE
The Monuments of India
India as a Civilization
THE BRITISH AND THE FAR EAST
CONCERNING THE JAPANESE
HAWAII AND THE HAWAIIANS
SOME OVERALL CONCLUSIONS
Other Works by the Same Author
The New Mythology of Racial Equality
BEFORE we start seeing the world we should gain some knowledge of the ideas that are throwing it into a ferment; otherwise, its lands emerge in half lights. For better orientation let us look backward to the early part of our century.
Lothrop Stoddard in the preface to his book The Rising Tide of Color (1920) came to the conclusion that since of her values depend on the quality of life Americans would wisely act to protect this value. Neither Stoddard, nor the many who agreed with him foresaw the psychotic forces that would arise dedicated to destroying the moral man’s values as well as our racial heritage. Because of the acceptance of the new beliefs the changes that have occurred are opposite to those forecast by Stoddard.
The ideas which we have mentioned have become Incorporated in a mystique. This we name The New Mythology.
Unless we can gain a knowledge of how this mystique has arisen we shall be handicapped in combating it. Even if given the facts most men do not accept them, for they are usually adequately prepared only to understand other, normal men. Fortunately we can call on a great philosopher for help.
William James in Pragmatism (1907) called attention to a group to which he gave the name, monists, or as we shall define this term, those dominated by an irrational faith in ideas based on oneness. He brought out the fact that they are subjective thinkers, ruled by their temperaments. In addition to their many a for oneness they have of her characteristics, one of which is of extreme importance in understanding them. For this quality James coined the term tender-minded.
I would judge from James‘ general position that he held extreme monists to be mainly the product of inborn [Page 6] qualities, though he does not clearly so state. Let us be specific. We now know that individuals are born with a temperament fashioned by nature, being a part of their genetic makeup. The monist inherits his qualities.
The normal people who are free from the monist’s mania for reducing everything to oneness, we shall name pluralists.
James, unlike Stoddard, was not trying to catch a glimpse of the future; and this being the case we could not expect him to foreshadow the phenomenal impact that tender-minded monists have had on our age. Therefore, let us take up where James left off.
Having noticed that radicals are inordinately occupied with “unity”; that they, like Communists, reject the individual in favor of social totality, at first, while trying to describe them, referred to them as “unity-minded”. I later discovered the term, monist, and employed it; and still later, James’ work. While James had been interested in monists as they react on religion, my interest in them had been confined to their attempts to change the social system.
Much water has gone over the dam since James’ day. Many monists, particularly radicals, have followed the leadership of Marx and dropped their interest in religion in favor of interest in society. But how could they impose oneness and inevitability (the latter demand of the monist’s nature about which James failed to remark), on society? Marx, with his elaborate rationalizations, satisfied them; hence, his popularity.
Marx insisted on a “classless society”, a society made into one, without divisions. Other monists had invented this idea but Marx appropriated it, and, as far as I know, was the first to “discover” that this would be the “inevitable” outcome of the social adventure.
We could write a volume exhibiting the radical’s preoccupation with social theories based on oneness; but, other than evidence of this mania, it would be worthless. Fortunately we can call on a “short hand” method which [Page 7] will be adequate for our present purpose. We shall simply name the terms which radicals constantly employ and around which their theories are built. But this will call for a slight step backward in time.
Radicals in the last few years have been subjected to considerable criticism of their beliefs and have become more cautious in their theoretical expression. So let us start with the mid-fifties, and work back. We then find an unlimited number of their endorsements of “unity”, “one world”, “the oneness of humanity”. Their propaganda was responsible for giving the term isolationist an evil connotation. They objected that it is negative, and adverse to international togetherness: in short, opposed to their mania for One World. “integration”, still the subject of active promotion, has their strong support. This term may be defined as: “to make whole, or complete by bringing together parts” — a conception which the reader will realize arouses the basic drives of the born monist. Monists were becoming intoxicated with a belief in “togetherness” until it was properly shown that this could only be established on the basis of the lowest common denominator. This psychotic group has been fascinated with dreams of the world ruled from one center. Monists promoted the League of Nations and, on its failure, the United Nations. In the case of the latter, they succeeded in having their tender-minded outlook incorporated in its charter.
Most Humanists accept the New Mythology. The true humanism works for the betterment of mankind; present day Humanists work in the opposite direction, as we shall now prove.
The basic principles of biological progress — on which all progress ultimately rests, as stated, or Implied by Stoddard — are differentiation and to some extent elimination, though this may be gradual and painless. The monistic Humanist is opposed to both principles. Differentiation negates his sense of oneness and therefore to him is intolerable; elimination profoundly shocks his tender mind. [Page 8] The proper name for today’s Humanists is “animalists”. They promote causes that lead to the perpetuation of the lower forms of humanity — those nearest the lower animals.
The monist is not only tender-minded by nature; he is also a misfit. He is apt therefore to develop a morbid interest in of her misfits of whatever kind and wherever found, and shielding them from the hard facts of life may become his supreme concern. A major aim in the One World which he dreams about is to make life comfortable and pleasant for misfit groups. In his zealous efforts, he overlooks racial differences.
Though we believe that we can discover inconsistencies in the monist’s hope for One World filled with happy misfits made economically and psychologically comfortable, while normal men are enslaved by these ends, we shall not stress the point; that is, not now.
The New Mythology shares some ideas with Communism. At the same time there are differences. The repudiation of human biology is a sideline with the Communists; it has become a major project for promoters of the New Mythology — which in its baser forms we shall from now on refer to as animalism.
Aristotle came to the conclusion that man is a social animal. Most modern men apparently agree with Aristotle and take it for granted that the future of Humanity is interwoven with the fate of civilization, which in its turn may be looked on as a great complex, the totality of which has a different worth in different lands. It will be our purpose to pass judgments on the worth of the civilizations we visit.
Though a troubled world lies before us, we pluralists refuse to see it only in this light. We also wish to see its beauties, savor its richness, and explore its strangeness.
Since the rejection of the word Caucasian by many anthropologists has played into the hands of the promoters of the New Mythology, we shall reinstate it. The term Aryan we shall employ where tradition suggests this, as in [Page 9] India, though we consider it synonymous with Caucasian. By racist we mean anyone who accepts the fact, opposed by followers of the New Mythology, that significant differences exist in races. Though the term Mohammedanism is not acceptable to the followers of Islam, we shall for convenience employ it, though we may also refer to this group as Moslems, wherever, as in India, such is the practice.
In view of the fact that radicals have appropriated the term liberal, we shall not use it. Herbert Spencer, in 1884, gave the proper definition of a liberal as: “One who advocates freedom from constraint, especially in political institutions.” We shall therefore refer to those who would destroy individualism in favor of centralized power as radicals, or as “priests” of the still unrecognized lay religion which we have named The New Mythology.
A VISIT TO SPAIN
WE left New York City late the evening of January 28, 1961, headed southeastward, towards the lands of the most ancient civilizations. Some twenty-four hour s later we encountered a heavy sea. The next day a wind, carrying great clouds, pursued us from out of the west, while White caps, in bursts of foam, danced to the horizon.
Our first landing was at Las Palmas on the Canary Islands and from there we went to Madeira, another island. These isolated bits of land lie to the West of Northern Africa. Canary Islanders, by terracing volcanic mountains, have converted them into garden spots. Theirs is an adventure in life on a vertical plane. Though I have seen wilder areas, these have never been so intimately associated with human beings. We might see a lovely home built on the edge of a cliff, while numerous roads that wind about the mountains are supported by sheer walls, built of stone. The people who have transformed this area are of the Mediterranean race, but with a minority of blonds of unknown origin.
Our next stop was at the city of Tangier, Morocco, located in northwestern Africa where the Atlantic meets the Mediterranean. To us carrying memories of the Canary Islanders, the people of Tangier appeared extremely dark, though the large majority are not Negroid. They represent a type unfamiliar to Americans. For the present we shall refer to them simply as Moors: inhabitants of Morocco.
Tangier has a residential area with a considerable number of well-to-do Europeans. The natives are poverty stricken and have acquired an unsavory reputation. The land about Tangier is cultivated and is uneven in contour but affords no fine prospects.
Our next call was at the port of Malaga, Spain. Its people compared with those of Tangier are quite fair, in spite of a virtual absence of blonds.
The Moors conquered Spain and greatly influenced her history for more than 700 years, though they did not hold all of the land over this period. Reliable information with respect to the racial origin of the Moors is not available. We shall therefore dismiss this subject with a brief estimate of probabilities. Some information indicates that the Moors were dark; of her evidence appears to contradict this. Briefly, then, they were probably made up of several racial elements: Arabs from the Near East, who were probably a fair brunette group; Berbers, some tribes having a minority of blond, or rufus elements, and finally the true Moors of North Africa, who were unquestionably dark and whose racial background we shall discuss when we reach Egypt. These groups were held together primarily by hope of conquest; secondarily, because they were all Moslems.
Possibly partly, because of racial differences, the Moors usually did not take their religion too seriously. Their rulers were generally not fanatics. Broadly speaking, they allowed Spanish Christians to live in peace providing they paid a poll tax, though there was much confiscation of property of the nobility and the Church. At times friendly relations developed between Christians and Moslems.
Culturally, Spain gained under the administration of the Moslems. While most of Europe was in a stupor due to the Dark Ages, Spain became a repository for numerous ideas infiltering from the Near East through Moslem channels, including Greek thought.
We left the port of Malaga by car for Granada, almost immediately starting the ascent of the Tajeda Mountains. A few unpretentious but well-built houses, White, or near White, were scattered about on the mountain side. As we approached its top, or chards and grain fields were to be seen, even on steep areas. Though this was the early part of February, it was the equivalent of spring in northern climate; grass was green and fruit trees were in bloom.
After passing the summit we traveled a number of miles where but little land was tillable, because of granitic rocks. Finally, hills of solid granite arose on both sides of us to heights of several hundred feet, their bleakness casting a somber spell over the small valley down which we were making our way.
Finally the land became more open. It was then that we caught a distant glimpse of the snow-capped Sierra Nevada Mountain s shining as a silver streak against the sky, their lower ramparts lost in haze. Immediately around us were olive groves crowning softly rounded hills reaching to the horizon. It was in this area that we encountered numerous fine mansions, no doubt the center of great landed estates. Finally we entered an expansive valley, the site of Granada. The rich soils of this area are in marked contrast with the land we had traveled.
The transition from poor and rocky fields to those of natural fertility augmented by irrigation was paralleled by an improvement in mechanical devices. In the granitic areas transportation was largely confined to pack animals, mostly donkeys, while further along horses and mules appeared, sometimes pulling carts. Finally, in the valley a few tractors were seen. In spite of these, we were surprised at the amount of field labor done by hand.
The cities of Granada and Malaga are quite modern in [Page 12] their newer portions, though showing their antiquity in places where some streets are so narrow as to be limited to pedestrians.
We shall not describe the Alhambra, the objective of our overland trip, as we were to see in far away lands finer structures.
The Spanish People
Spain is predominantly inhabited by people of the Mediterranean race; she has absorbed minorities of her Caucasian sub-races, Nordics as well as Alpines. I did not see any indications that the dark Moors left numerous genes, though we were in the area where they remained the longest.
The Spanish people, as is pointed out by Ortega, have great pride — too much to suit him. He refers to them as proud, infinitely proud. Others refer to them as dignified. However, named, this quality, combined with the courtesy that springs from it, makes them an interesting study, for in spite of their reserve they love to converse, as has been remarked on by a number of observers. We gained a feeling that, poor as they are, they live a worthwhile life.
Spain has not hesitated to expel elements which she has considered inimical with her aims — jews as well as Moors, and finally, Jesuits. Moslems, before their final defeat in 1492, had been leaving as they continued to meet with military reverses. Between 1609 and 1611 many of the remaining Moors were expelled to North Africa, as decreed by Philip III; the final exodus occurring in 1614.
On March 31, 1492, a decree was signed requiring conversion, or expulsion of jews within four months. It is now believed that some 165,000 left Spain while about 90,000 were baptized.
Why were jews expelled from Spain? This happened at a period of religious intolerance, which played a part, though there were other reasons, many complaints sounding quite modern. But in addition, it was believed that they conspired to bring about the entry of the Moors. [Page 13] Further, according to the Catholic Encyclopaedia’s article on Torquemada, the “converted jews [at the time of the Spanish Inquisition] endeavored to Judaize all Spain, and … the Catholic faith was in great danger from them.”
AN APPRAISAL OF SPAIN
WE remarked in an earlier writing on the incapacity of Latins for democracy. But where as the revolutions of South America are apt to involve little more than a change of ruling cliques, Spain’s revolution of the thirties was a bloody affair which profoundly upset the whole nation.
Spain and her people have fascinated many great men, though it would be difficult to say precisely why. In spite of this, let us present an estimate.
Many Northerners see Spain as a land of Romance. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries she acquired the richest empire in the world, and after her decline into poverty the aurora of Romance continued to cling to her. Who has not become stimulated by the dream world conjured up by a reference to “castles in Spain”? Are we not all impressed when we learn of a Spanish grandee? The title suggests the elegance that we have come to associate with the Spanish aristocrat, the product of a long period of selection. Madariaga believes that the Gypsies and jews of Spain represent the finest specimens of these groups. The great men who have seen Spain and her people in romantic lights are Bizet, Victor Hugo, Alexander Dumas, Lord Byron, and a host of lesser musicians and men of letters.
In his opera Carmen, Bizet caught many of the romantic feelings that Northerners have for Spain and her people. But it is probable that the Spanish do not see themselves as we see them. Carmen, in spite of its brilliant melodies and vibrant, orchestration, has never been popular in the land of its setting.
It is generally believed by anthropologists that the Mediterranean race is closely related to Nordics in spite of the [Page 14] difference in coloring, the similarities being obvious in cranial and body structures and leading to a feeling of kinship, with the difference introducing an element of interest. The Spanish beauty with her dark hair and eyes and at her best with a feminine vitality that is rarely matched enjoys a deserved fame. Though the vivaciousness natural to her is often curbed due to an aspect of Spanish culture, it may show unexpectedly.
In spite of their narrow religious viewpoint Spaniards are seldom puritans. The moral atmosphere of Spain is more relaxed than in, northern areas. Further, Spain is a man’s land; so why should it not be attractive to men from any where, including those from Northlands?
The very names of Spanish cities and provinces sound like music. In the areas we visited are the province of Andalusia, the City of Granada, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
But let us drop the world of Romance to see what we can learn of the Spanish people that is of more consequence, though before we do this we must touch on an idea that is disturbing our age.
One of the tenets of The New Mythology is opposed to all value judgments with respect to peoples. According to it, we must not employ our intelligence to draw such conclusions. To justify this position the claim is made that overall estimates of peoples cannot be proved. These are then rejected out of hand and even stigmatized as improper. Such ideas we refuse to accept.
In advancing the claim that the public is incapable of making proper estimates of peoples, spokesmen for The New Mythology ignore much evidence that points to the opposite conclusion. Public estimates of worth may be amazingly accurate. Thus, before they became confused by The New Mythology, the majority of our people had gained a correct understanding of the Negro’s lack of capacity. The earlier estimate has been subsequently borne out by a great array of scientific evidence.
In a scale of worth based on intellectual ability, where [Page 15] should we place the inhabitants of Spain? As a means of judging their capacity, we shall look to the number of Spaniards who have risen to International fame in intellectual pursuits. As we do not consider that the art of painting represents such, we rule out Spain’s numerous great artists. In fiction the Spanish have Cervantes; however great he may be, the poverty of first rate authors is difficult to explain except through a lack of capacity. In science the raster is equally poor. Cajal, a physiologist and one of Spain’s leading scientists, shows that in comparison with the rest of Europe Spain has shown poverty in scientific thought. While we recognize that some other conquerors in the New World possessed a capacity for wielding ruthless power in achieving self-aggrandizement, such quality does not make for a sound civilization — the subject of our principal interest. On the other hand, we credit Spain with producing a number of men on the fringe of greatness.
Spain has had the usual apologists who explain her backwardness and paucity of great men on the basis of social and historical circumstances. All of these ignore the fact that groups, peoples, and races have innate qualities as do individuals and that these qualities profoundly affect accomplishments. The New Mythology has set up environment as a god from whom magic flows. So great is this magic that it dispenses with biology. Nature has proved to be arbitrary. Saying this, we do not rule out the possibility that cultural factors, particularly religions, may greatly influence civilizations.
Certainly Cervantes was not helped by his environment. It seemed to conspire to deny him even a minimum of advantages. His genius rose above all difficulties. What type of man was he? Cervantes refers to himself as having chestnut hair, and before it turned silver, a golden beard.
Spain was the first country in Europe to introduce compulsory education for children. The Spanish people have had every opportunity to demonstrate their ability, unless we consider the Catholic Church a sufficient stultifying [Page 16] factor to account for their backwardness. But this may be looked at in two ways. While the Northern races have had the strength of mind and courage to throw off the bonds of this intellectual tyranny, Latins generally have not.
Though we feel that our estimate has been proper, and within limits, accurate, we would not make too much of it. The West now faces a problem of vastly greater import. With tropical peoples posed to swamp us by means of peaceful penetration and with our own radicals actively abetting such projects, we stand in need of Western solidarity in opposition. This should include all Caucasians, and, among them, the Spanish.
In my opinion if Latins could divest themselves of the racial beliefs fostered by the Catholic Church, they might become racists, for we occasionally learn of individual Latins with a remarkably clear understanding of the danger posed to our kind by Negroes. Given freedom in this area, I believe that we might even see a dynamic racist leadership appear in some Latin lands.
We shall skip lightly over some areas of beauty and interest. The Monastery of Montserrat is located several miles from Barcelona in a mountainous area, perched on the side of a cliff which affords a distant view of the Pyrenees Mountains. The Riviera we shall leave to its tourists.
ITALY AND THE ITALIANS
NORTHERN Italy has an interesting countryside. The city of Florence is remarkable for the number of great men, men of international reputation, who were either born, or lived there. But it is the Italian hilltop villages and towns that stand out most clearly in our memories. Often located at a considerable height, these positions formerly aided in defense. Seen from a distance in early evening, they suggest dreams of a Romantic past.
The Romans have long been skillful builders. Italy has [Page 17] an abundance of rock in its hills and mountains but little timber. Due to this situation, rock is extensively employed in construction, though usually covered with plaster and painted, while the roofs are every where seen. The construction gives an air of permanency appropriate to an ancient civilization.
The exterior of St. Peter’s is unimpressive, though the court in front of it, flanked as it is by numerous columns, offers a fine sight.
St. Peter’s is built in the shape of a cross — 600 feet long and 450 feet wide with a great dome striking upward over the area of convergence. How the dome fits symbolically into a conception based on the cross, I am not aware — but there it arises in all of its magnificence.
No figures can convey the majestic feeling of grandeur imparted by the interior of the cathedral. Looking from one end of the central have towards the other, one is impressed by the tininess of the human figures as these are seen about the tomb of St. Peter, located under the dome. The canopy which surmounts the tomb is made of bronze supported by four great bronze pillars. Strangely, this metal is of pagan origin, having been removed from the Pantheon.
While sightseeing in Italy, we were frequently reminded by our guides that the early Christians had been persecuted, but never a word was said about cruelties practiced by Christians against skeptics during the Inquisition.
One gains the impression over the Mediterranean lands that an excessive proportion of the wealth of its peoples has been diverted into the construction of cathedrals, churches, and chapels. Of these there are in Rome alone 440 devoted to the Catholic faith. (It may be of some interest to record that Rome has 12 Protest ant churches and 2 synagogues.)
In addition to the cost of the structures, an immense amount of wealth is diverted to the maintenance of the Church as an organization, its priesthood being largely [Page 18] unproductive. But surely, the Church must offer something in return.
At a cocktail party aboard ship I was told by a doctor, born in Sicily, but brought to America while young and educated in New York City, that the Mediterranean peoples are in need of the discipline imposed by the Church on its peoples. It was his belief that without priests to tell the poor that it is wrong to steal, and freed of the fear of Hell, crimes would greatly increase. These, he admitted, are unduly high, and he remarked that all of the peoples of the Mediterranean are dishonest. He spoke highly of the Japanese, by contrast. I might add that experienced travelers have developed similar beliefs about these peoples, based on experience. We need not discount their beliefs, as The New Mythology would have us do; for, as we have seen, popular appraisals are often correct. In case the Church cannot justify its existence on of her grounds, Mediterraneans pay an immense price for this form of discipline. But the Church has other functions.
We gained the impression in the Catholic lands we visited that much of community life is tied to Church activities. Showmanship is every where in evidence, the great cathedrals offering this as fiestas in frozen form, the fiestas providing a temperate but dynamic outlet for the Latin love of spectacles. Again, the cost to the people is high.
In spite of the powerful hold of the Church in the Mediterranean area, there is evidence that in Italy she is losing some of her grip; there are a surprising number of atheists in this land of the ancient pagans.
Rome looks best at night. Many of its buildings are painted a golden tan and as the illumination from the city’s lights is also golden, the effect is pleasing. By day they appear faded and shabby. In portions of the outlying parts of the city at least a few of the streets have been widened — some, greatly, so that the effect is one of openness, much in contrast with the other Mediterranean cities that we visited, except Barcelona.
The Italian People
Basically, the people of Italy are of the Mediterranean race; particularly to the south of Rome. To the north, they have absorbed Caucasian sub-races in numbers, especially Alpines and various groups affiliated with Nordic stocks.
Because of their incapacity for democracy, Latins need able leaders. When they have had these, they have been great conquerors. At other times they failed.
Most of Rome’s successful leaders sprang from her important families. As Rome achieved greatness, her gifted families began to die out. They were apt to have one child, or none, or often an adopted child — sometimes a slave. It is quite likely that the ending of the better strains of Roman blood played a part in her decline, and possibly a major one.
How much has Italy benefited from the Northern people who have settled in her land, particularly in the North? Certainly, some; probably, a great deal. As an example, Caesar Augustus, grand nephew of Julius Caesar, is claimed by racists as a Nordic, and credence is given to this claim as he had sandy, or golden hair and light eyes. But what can one man do for a whole nation? In the case of Augustus, a great deal; his impact on history changed its course. It is generally recognized that Augustus ended the threat of anarchy and established an era of internal and external peace, unfamiliar to the ancient world. This, he considered his greatest accomplishment.
Augustus gathered all power to himself, then employed it for the benefit of the Empire; achieving a harmonious whole, and this without any special concessions to any group, or groups. Nor did he employ demagoguery, or imply that he aimed at equality. At the same time he was democratic in his personal relationships and would not allow the display of statues of himself. He spent tremendous sums in improving and beautifying Rome and the Empire; none for his own aggrandizement, though he ruled virtually all of the then known world. Augustus, [Page 20] in refusing to promote his own personality, was the least Latin of the Romans.
So great was the success of Augustus that, partly in his lifetime but mostly after his death, he became revered throughout the Empire as a divine figure.
One of Augustus’s favorite emblems was the Sphinx, which is fitting for he remains one of the most enigmatic figures encountered in history. He could speak fluently when he chose, or hold his tongue. When his genius failed him, he learned from experience. In spite of the fact that he suffered from poor health all of his life and was subjected to unprecedented strains, observers have remarked on his placid expression, which shows in his portraits. Though it is difficult to penetrate to the innermost reaches of his mind, we know that he was a conservative, who wished to preserve the classes much as they had developed historically, though he saw to it that exceptional individual s could arise and gain recognition. He also tried to restore the ancient Roman virtues.
Of the great men of history, Augustus has garnered the least fame. There are several reasons for this. Conservatives who have become intoxicated with democracy do not like him, because he became the first emperor of Rome. Radicals despise him, because he was basically a conservative. Romantic lovers of displays of sheer power are apt to ignore him, because he rejected such a pursuit. An appraisal of true greatness of Augustus, based on balance and moderation, lies outside of public interest. The few who have seen beyond these superficial outlooks have had little, or no effect in establishing a deserved fame for this great man.
From Italy, we sailed for Greece. As this country was the site of the first flowering of most that is best in Western thought we shall by-pass it here, hoping to deal with it later, when we have more space at our disposal.
We left Athens for the island of Rhodes, and from there went to Egypt.
END of Part 1/3
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